Kina ligger på plats 176 av 180 nationer på Reportrar utan gränsers globala pressfrihetsindex. Media här har alltså större restriktioner än i de flesta andra länder, vilket bland annat visar sig genom de listor med förbjudna ord och termer som myndigheterna med jämna mellanrum utfärdar.
Dessa listor ger även en fingervisning om vilka ämnen som för stunden är extra känsliga i Kina, eller särskilt viktiga för de kinesiska myndigheterna.
Eftersom Kina på senare år trappat upp sina territoriella ambitioner, är det knappast lustigt att en ny sådan lista från Kinas statliga nyhetsbyrå Xinhua som läckte ut tidigare i år domineras av kategorin ”Hongkong, Macao, territorium och självständighet”.
Av 102 förbjudna termer utgörs punkt 32-89 av denna kategori. Det handlar bland annat om att universitet och institutioner i Taiwan inte får benämnas som ”nationella”, eller att idrottare som representerar Hongkong måste kallas kineser.
Listan, som tidigare i veckan översattes till engelska av SupChina, visar den extrema petigheten i den för Kina så explosiva frågan om territoriell integritet. Läs nedan om vad landets reportrar nu inte får skriva med risk för att förlora sina jobb eller värre:
”Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, territory, and sovereignty”
32 – Hong Kong and Macau are special administrative regions of China [中国特别行政区 zhōngguó tè bié hángzhèngqū]. Never indicate that Hong Kong and Macau are countries [国家 guójiā] in any texts, maps, or diagrams. Especially when they are mentioned with other countries, be aware to use countries and regions [国家和地区 guójiāhédìqū].
33 – Never mention Hong Kong or Macau with China simultaneously, such as China and Hong Kong [中港 zhōnggǎng] or China and Macau [中澳 zhōngào].
34 – The counterpart to Taiwan is motherland mainland [祖国大陆 zǔguódàlù] or mainland [大陆 dàlù]. The counterpart to Hong Kong and Macau is inland [内地 nèidì]. They cannot be mixed up.
35 – Do not say tourists from Hong Kong, Macau, or Taiwan travel to China [港澳台游客来华旅游 gǎngàotái yóukè láihuá lǚyóu]. Instead, say tourists from Hong Kong, Macau, or Taiwan travel to mainland [港澳台游客来内地旅游 gǎngàotái yóukè láinèidì lǚyóu ].
36 – Party leaders’ trips to Hong Kong and Macau can only be called inspection [视察 shìchá], not foreign visit [出访 chūfǎng].
37 – When introducing Hong Kong or Macau as a member of any international organization such as the World Trade Organization or the World Meteorological Organization, they should be called members [成员 chéngyuán] rather than member states [成员国 chéngyuánguó].
38 – When it comes to the International Olympic Committee or any sports-related events, teams from Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan should be referred to in accordance with the regulations by the organization. The PRC Chinese Olympics Committee [中国奥林匹克委员会 zhōng guóàolínpǐkèwěiyuánhuì] can be abbreviated as 中国奥委会 [zhōngguóàowěihuì] in Chinese. Olympics Committee of Hong Kong China [中国香港奥林匹克委员会 zhōngguóxiānggǎngàolínpǐkèwěiyuánhuì] can be abbreviated as 中国香港奥委会 in Chinese. Chinese national team [中国国家队 zhōngguóguójiāduì] can be shortened to national team [国家队 guójiāduì]. Team of Hong Kong China [中国香港队 zhōngguóxiānggǎngduì] can be shortened to Hong Kong team [香港队 xiānggǎngduì].
39 – Differentiate residents in Hong Kong or Macau [香港澳门居民 xiānggǎng àomén jūmín] from fellow countrymen living in Hong Kong or Macau [香港澳门同胞 xiānggǎng àomén tóngbāo]. The former concept refers to all residents in these two regions, including permanent and non-permanent ones. The latter concept refers to members of the great family of the Chinese nation [中华民族大家庭成员 zhōnghuámínzú dàjiātíng chéngyuán].
40 – Differentiate national frontier [国境 guójìng] and customs boundary [关境 guānjìng]. National territory means an area of land under the jurisdiction of a state. From this perspective, Hong Kong and Macau is part of Chinese territory. Customs boundary refers to an area of land under the same Custom Law and tariff system. Hong Kong and Macau are separate territories of China, which should be deemed as overseas [境外 jìngwài] in terms of customs boundary. People from mainland China travelling to Hong Kong or Macau should be counted as leaving the country, but not going abroad.
41 – Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan business should be listed as domestic business and be regulated separately. Any transit lines between mainland China and the three regions should be called Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan routes [港澳台航线 gǎngàotáihángxiàn], or International/Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan routes [国际/港澳台航线 guójì/gǎngàotáihángxiàn]. For mobile phone service, roaming services in these three regions should be called Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan roaming [港澳台漫游 gǎngàotáimànyóu], International/Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan roaming [国际/港澳台漫游 guójì/gǎngàotáimànyóu], cross-border roaming [跨境漫游 kuàjìngmànyóu], or regional roaming [区域漫游 qūyùmànyóu].
42- Do not refer to a Hong Kong company or Taiwan company as foreign company [外国企业 wàiguó qǐyè].
43 – Agreements signed between mainland China and Hong Kong or Macau can not be referred to as treaties [条约 tiáoyuē]. It can be referred to as protocol [协议 xiéyì] or arrangement [安排 ānpái]. Words that are used to describe relations between two countries can not be used between mainland China and Hong Kong or Macau.
44 – For judicial connection and judicial aid, do not use terms from international law, such as mainland China exchanges judicial assistance with Hong Kong and Macau according to civil proceedings concerning foreign affairs. Do not use terms like judicial assistance between China and foreign countries [中外司法协助 zhōngwàisīfǎxiézhù], international judicial assistance [国际司法协助 guójìsīfǎxiézhù], or judicial assistance between China and Hong Kong or Macau [中港澳司法协助 zhōnggǎngàosīfǎxiézhù]. Use regional judicial assistance [区际司法协助 qūjìsīfǎxiézhù] or judicial assistance between mainland China and Hong Kong or Macau [内地与香港澳门司法协助 nèidìyǔxiānggǎngàoménsīfǎxiézhù]. When it comes to conflicts in jurisdiction, laws or regulations, use standard wording such as conflicts in jurisdiction [管辖权冲突 guǎnxiáquánchōngtū] or conflicts in laws [法律冲突 fǎlǜchōngtū]. Do not use terms like infringement of judicial sovereignty [侵犯司法主权 qīnfànsīfǎzhǔquán]. Do not say extradite suspects or criminals [引渡犯罪嫌疑人或罪犯 yǐndùfànzuìxiányírénhuòzuìfàn], say transfer suspects or criminals [移交或遣返犯罪嫌疑人或罪犯 yíjiāohuòqiǎnfǎnfànzuìxiányírénhuòzuìfàn].
45 – Do not call Hong Kong and Macau’s return to the motherland as transfer of sovereignty [主权移交 zhǔquányíjiāo]. It should be described as the Chinese government resumed its sovereignty in Hong Kong and Macau [中国政府对香港、澳门恢复行使主权 zhōngguó zhèngfǔ duì xiānggǎng 、àomén huīfù hángshǐ zhǔquán] or handover of government [政权交接 zhèngquánjiāojiē]. Hong Kong and Macau before their returns to mainland China were under colonial rule [受殖民统治 shòu zhímín tǒngzhì]. They were not colonies [殖民地 zhímíndì].
46 – Avoid using phrases such as integration [融合 rónghé] or unify [一体化 yītǐhuà] of mainland China and Hong Kong or Macau, or urban integration [同城化 tóngchénghuà] of Shenzhen and Hong Kong, or urban integration of Zhuhai and Macau. Avoid anything that is against the “one country, two systems” policy [一国两制 yīguóliǎngzhì].
47 – Governmental agencies and institutional arrangement in Hong Kong and Macau should be expressed according to the Basic Law. For example, chief executive of the Hong Kong special administrative region of China [香港特别行政区行政长官 xiānggǎngtèbiéxíngzhèngqūxíngzhèngzhǎngguān] cannot be called chief executive of the government of the Hong Kong special administrative region of China [香港特别行政区政府行政长官 xiānggǎngtèbiéxíngzhèngqūzhèngfǔxíngzhèngzhǎngguān]. The Legislative Council of the Macau special administrative region of China [澳门特别行政区立法会 àoméntèbiéxíngzhèngqūlìfǎhuì] cannot be called The Legislative Council of the government of the Macau special administrative region of China [澳门特别行政区政府立法会 ào ménlìtèbiéxíngzhèngqūzhèngfǔlìfǎhu]. Political systems in Hong Kong and Macau are administration-led. They cannot be described as separation of powers [三权分立 sānquánfènlì].
48 – Avoid using self-praising phrases to describe anti-China parties in Hong Kong and Macau. For example, umbrella movement [雨伞运动 yǔsǎnyùndòng] should be called illegal occupy central [非法占中 fēifǎzhànzhōng].
49 – For leading parties in Taiwan after October 1, 1949, they should be called Taiwan authorities [台湾当局 táiwāndāngjú] or Taiwan part [台湾方面 táiwānfāngmiàn]. Avoid using any flags, badges or songs that are related to Republic of China. For presidential elections [总统选举 zǒngtǒngxuǎnjǔ] in Taiwan, they can be called leader elections in the region of Taiwan [台湾地区领导人选举 táiwāndìqūlǐngdǎorénxuǎnjǔ], or they can be abbreviated as Taiwan elections [台湾大选 táiwāndàxuǎn].
50 – Never use the word Taiwan government [台湾政府 táiwānzhèngfǔ].
51 – Never use any job titles in Taiwan that include words like national [国家 guójiā], central [中央 zhōngyāng ] and nationwide [全国 quánguó].
52 – Presidential Palace [总统府 zǒngtǒngfǔ] should be called office building of Taiwan authorities [台湾当局领导人办公场所 táiwāndāngjúlǐngdǎorénbàngōngchǎngsuǒ]. Executive Yuan [行政院 hángzhèngyuàn] should be called office building of administration agencies in Taiwan [台湾地区行政管理机构办公场所 táiwāndìqūxíngzhèngguǎnlǐjīgòubàngōngchǎngsuǒ]. Memorial hall of the father of the nation [国父纪念馆 guófùjìniànguǎn] should be called Taipei Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall [台北中山纪念馆 táiběizhōngshānjìniànguǎn].
53 – The word government [政府 zhèngfǔ] can be used for administrative agencies below the provincial, municipal or level. Quotation marks are not necessary for Taiwan Provincial Government [台湾省政府 táiwānshěngzhèngfǔ] or Taipei Municipal Government [台北市政府 táiběishìzhèngfǔ].
54 – For pro-independence party [台独 táidú] or Taiwan Solidarity Union [台湾团结联盟 táiwāntuánjiéliánméng], they can not be shortened as Taiwan Union [台联 táilián]. They can be called Taiwan Union Party [台联党 táiliándǎng] instead.
55 – Quotation marks are not necessary for job positions in parties such as the Kuomintang Party, Democratic Progressive Party or People First Party. For any interactions between the Kuomintang Party and the Communist Party, do not use cooperations between the Kuomintang Party and the Communist Party [国共合作 guógònghézuò]. For People First Party or New Party, do not add Taiwan [台湾 táiwān] in front of them.
56 – Usually do not add quotations marks to nongovernmental organizations in Taiwan.
57 – For Taiwan’s nongovernmental organizations that have China [中国 zhōngguó ] or Chunghwa [中华 zhōnghuá] in their names, such as China Airlines [中华航空 zhōnghuáhángkōng] or Chunghwa Telecom [中华电信 zhōnghuádiànxìn], put Taiwan [台湾 táiwān] in front of their names.
58 – For non-official trips carried out by Taiwan people, use their civil identities to introduce them.
59 – For universities or cultural institutions that share same names of those in China, such as Tsinghua University [清华大学 qīnghuádàxué] or the Palace Museum [故宫博物院 gùgōng bówùyuàn], put Taiwan [台湾 táiwān] or Taipei [台北 táiběi] in front of their names.
60 – Don’t use word state-run [国立 guólì] for any universities or institutions.
61 – Kinmen and Matzu administrative regions are under the ruling of Fujian Province, thus they can not be called Taiwan Kinmen county or Taiwan Lianjiang County. Geographically speaking, Kinmen and Matzu are offshore islands that belong to Fujian. They should not be called offshore islands of Taiwan [台湾离岛 táiwānlídǎo].
62 – Use quotation marks to describe official documents by the Taiwan authorities.
63 – Do not call laws of the People’s Republic of China mainland China laws [大陆法律 dàlùfǎlǜ]. For laws enacted in Taiwan region, they should be called relevant regulations of Taiwan region [台湾地区有关规定 táiwāndìqūyǒuguānguīdìng]. For any laws issued by the Taiwan authorities, use quotation marks and refer to them as alleged.
64 – Affairs regarding cross-Strait relations are domestic affairs of China. Never use terms from the International Law, such as passport [护照 hùzhào], document authentication [文书认证 wénshūrènzhèng], extradite [引渡 yǐndù] or smuggle [偷渡 tōudù]. Terms can be used are travel document [旅行证件 lǚ xíngzhèngjiàn], document verification [文书查证 wénshūcházhèng], mutual judicial cooperation [司法合作 sīfǎhézuò], mutual judicial aid [司法互助 sīfǎhùzhù], repatriate [遣返 qiǎnfǎn], and 私渡.
65 – In international situations, do not call China mainland China [大陆 dàlù]. Call Taiwan China Taiwan. Do not pair Taiwan with other countries.
66 – For any international organizations that allow entities that are not independent sovereign states to be members, Taiwan or Taipei should be referred to as China Taiwan or China Taipei.
67 – Official name for Taiwan region in WTO is Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu [台湾、澎湖、金门、马祖单独关税区 táiwān、pénghú 、jīnmén 、mǎzǔ dāndúguānshuìqū], or Separate Customs Territory of Chinese Taipei [中国台北单独关税区 zhōngguótáiběidāndúguānshuìqū].
68 – For any cross-Strait activities, never use phrases like China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, or China, Macau and Taiwan or China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.
69 – Taiwanese investments in mainland China cannot be called China-foreign joint ventures [中外合资 zhōngwàihézī].
70 – Taiwan is a province of China. But in consideration of Taiwan people’s feelings, use Taiwan region [台湾地区 táiwāndìqū] or Taiwan [台湾 táiwān] instead of Taiwan Province [台湾省 táiwānshěng].
71 – Use quotation marks for any political terms related to pro-independence [台独 táidú], such as independence of Taiwan [台湾独立 táiwāndúlì], self-determination of Taiwan residents [台湾住民自决 táiwānzhùmínzìjué], sovereignty independence of Taiwan [台湾主权独立 táiwānzhǔquándúlì], de-sinicization [去中国化 qùzhōngguóhuà], legal independence [法理台独 fǎlǐ táidú], or Sunflower Movement [太阳花学运 tài yáng huāxuéyùn].
72 – For political terms about de-sinicization [去中国化 qùzhōngguóhuà] in the field of education and culture in Taiwan, treat them respectively in the context.
73 – Invasion and colonial ruling of the Netherlands and Japan in Taiwan cannot be abbreviated as Netherlandish ruling [荷治 hézhì] or Japanese ruling [日治 rìzhì]
74 – Do not call Taiwan residents citizens [公民 gōngmín]. Call them the Taiwanese public [台湾民众 táiwānmínzhòng], Taiwan people [台湾人民 táiwānrénmín] or fellow countrymen in Taiwan [台湾同胞 táiwāntóngbāo].
75 – Never call China mainland China [中国大陆 zhōngguódàlù] or mainland [大陆 dàlù] when Taiwan is not in the context.
76 – Never call governments of the People’s Republic of China mainland governments [大陆政府 dàlùzhèngfǔ]. Do not put mainland in front of any institutions affiliated with the central government.
77 – Normally do not use phrases before or after liberation [解放前后 jiěfàngqiánhòu] or before or after the establishment of new China [新中囯成立前后 xīnzhōngguóchénglìqiánhòu]. Say before and after the birth of the People’s Republic of China [中华人民共和国成立前后 zhōnghuárénmíngònghéguóchénglìqiánhòu] or before or after 1949 [一九四九年前后 yījiǔsìjiǔniánqiánhòu].
78 – For central leaders participating in activities related to Taiwan, use different titles in different situations. For example, for activities between parties, use their party titles.
79 – Full name of China Affairs Office is Taiwan Office of the CPC Central Committee [中共中央台湾工作办公室 zhōnggòngzhōngyāngtáiwāngōngzuòbàngōngshì]. Full name of Taiwan Affairs Office should be called Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council [国务院台湾事务办公室 guówùyuàntáiwānshìwùbàngōngshì].
80 – Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits [海峡两岸关系协会 hǎixiáliǎngànguānxìxiéhuì] can be abbreviated as Straits Association [海协会 hǎixiéhuì]. Don’t add mainland China ahead of the title. Taiwan Straits Exchange Foundation [台湾海峡交流基金会 táiwānhǎixiájiāoliújījīnhuì] can be shortened as Straits Foundation [海基会 hǎijīhuì] or Taiwan Straits Foundation [台湾海基会 táiwānhǎijīhuì]. Leader of Straits Association can be called president [会长 huìzhǎng], and leader of Straits Foundation can be called chairman of the board [董事长 dǒngshìzhǎng]. These two organizations together can be called Two Associations [两会 liǎnghuì] or Two Associations Across the Taiwan Straits [两岸两会 liǎngànliǎnghuì]. Do not call them white gloves [白手套 báishǒ tào].
81 – Communications between Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council and Taiwan’s mainland Affairs Council can not be described as official contacts [官方接触 guānfāngjiēchù].
82 – For 1992 Consensus, do not say “based on 1992 Consensus, both sides recognize that there is only on China, but they can have different interpretations of the definition of China.” [九二共识、一中各表 jiǔèrgòngshí 、yīzhōnggèbiǎo] Do not add quotation marks to One China Principle [一个中国原则 yīgèzhōngguóyuánzé], One China Policy [一个中国政策 yīgèzhōngguózhèngcè], and One China frame [一个中国框架 yīgèzhōngguókuàngjià]. Add quotation marks to “One China, Two systems” system [一国两制 yīguóliǎngzhì].
83 – For Taiwan people who travel to mainland China and Taiwan through other countries such as Japan or the U.S., do not say they come back to mainland China through a third country [经第三国回大陆 jīngdìsānguóhuídàlù] or they come back to Taiwan through a third country [经第三国回台 jīngdìsānguóhuítái]. It should be called through other countries [经其他国家 jīngqítāguójiā].
84 – Do not call southern Fujian dialect used by Taiwan people Taiwanese language [台语 táiyǔ]. Do not use the term Taiwanese language in any publications or under any circumstances. Do not call singers from Taiwan Taiwanese language singer [台语歌星 táiyǔgēxīng]. They can be called southern Fujian dialect singer from Taiwan [台湾闽南语歌星 táiwānmǐnnányǔgēxīng]. Use quotation marks for Taiwanese language singer. For language used in cross-Strait communication, say 两岸汉语 rather than 两岸华语.
85 – Do not call ethnic minorities in Taiwan indigenous people [原住民 yuánzhùmín]. They can be collectively referred to as ethnic minorities in Taiwan or be separately referred to in their specific names.
86 – Always use quotation marks for the phrase Mini Three Links [小三通 xiǎosāntōng] used by the Taiwan part, or it should be called direct links between coastal areas in Fujian Province, and the islands of Kinmen and Matsu [福建沿海与金门、马祖地区直接往来 fújiànyánhǎiyǔjīnmén 、mǎzǔdìqū zhíjiēwǎnglái].
87 – Nansha Islands [南沙群岛 nánshāqúndǎo] shouldn’t be called Spratly Islands [斯普拉特利群岛 sīpǔlātèlìqúndǎo].
88 – Diaoyu Islands [钓鱼岛 diàoyúdǎo] shouldn’t be called Senkaku Islands [尖阁群岛 jiāngéqúndǎo].
89 – Do not say separatist forces in Xinjiang [新疆分裂势力 xīnjiāngfènlièshìlì] pro-independence advocates in Xinjiang [疆独 jiāngdú].
Hela listan med 102 punkter kan läsas här.